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Sechenov Medical Journal

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No 4 (2018)
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES 

5-15 371
Abstract
To date, there has been an increase in the scientific interest in the state of soft tissues surrounding dental implants and their influence on the long-term prognosis of implant treatment. It is known, that the risk factors for the development of periimplantitis include a deficiency or complete absence of an attached keratinized gingiva in the area of implants. The article provides a comparative analysis of various methods of mucogingival surgery in the field of dental implants using free gingival autografts and xenogenic dermal matrices.
16-24 1069
Abstract
Aim: to study the problems of the elderly population and the directions of optimization of the geriatric care system. Material and methods. The reports of the international study Global Age Watch Index for 2013 and 2015, the data of state statistics on demography for 2013-2017 are analyzed. The levels of demographic aging in federal districts werestudied. Using Microsoft Excel, SPSS, statistical data processing was performed. 210 respondents were interviewed in an equal gender ratio by the method of simple random sampling in Moscow and the Moscow region.Results. Based on the Global Age Watch Index global rating, an analysis was made of indicators of the quality of life and wellbeing of older people living in the Russian Federation. The factors influencing demographic aging are considered and their estimation is made on the basis of the correlation analysis on the example of four federal districts of the country. To study the motivation for the consumption of drugs by persons of older age groups, a sociological survey was conducted. A conceptual model of the geriatric service management system is proposed with the introduction of systemic unity and an integrated approach to solving organizational, financial, and scientific and methodological problems of providing geriatric care.Conclusion. As a result of the analysis, the reasons for the low position of the Russian Federation in the Global Rating of the Global Age Watch Index, including the incomplete medical personnel and the variation in per capita incomes of the population in the regions, are identified. In the course of the sociological survey, the main pharmacotherapeutic groups of drugs purchased by persons of older age groups as well as the level of expenses were identified. In addition, the respondents' opinion was revealed on optimizing the organizational and managerial structure of medical, social and pharmaceutical care, focused on active longevity, the use of the personal potential of the elderly in work activities.
25-27 253
Abstract
The aim of the work is to study the functional characteristics of SLC transporters of organic anions: OAT1 and OAT3 in normal conditions and in model ischemia/reperfusion injury.Materials and methods. The HEK293 cell line was used as a model for the study. Conditions of ischemia/reperfusion injury were created by the previously described method. The activity of the transporters was assessed by the capture of the marker substrate - fluorescein. The concentration of fluorescein was measured using a plate fluorimeter. The results were normalized by the amount of total protein.Results. In condition of ischemia/reperfusion injury, the activity of organic anion transporters decreased in comparison with the norm. The data obtained allow us to conclude that in conditions of ischemia/reperfusion injury, the concentration of dicarboxylic acids in the cell is low, which in turn can lead to a decrease activity of transporters.
28-33 251
Abstract
Morphometric data on the linear parameters of the dental arches are informative, diagnostically significant values and have a use in practical dentistry. Interpretation of indicators can be used to characterize physiological occlusion, as well as predicting the shape and size of dental arches in the treatment of patients with dentoalveolar anomalies. The morphometric parameters of the width of the maxillary dental arches with different skull types were investigated. The work was performed on 187 skull preparations of mature persons of both sexes with physiological occlusion of teeth. The width of the dental arch was measured between canines, premolars and molars. As a result of the study, the minimum and maximum limits and the average statistical indices of the width of the dental arches at different levels of measurement in mesocranial, brachicranial and dolichocranial skull types are determined depending on sex. A significant difference in the average dental arches of the upper jaw in men and women in all craniotypes was observed only at the level of the first premolars and only on the vestibular side of the arch.
34-40 312
Abstract
Purpose: studying of efficiency of medical support of the workers of locomotive crews (WLC) on decrease in the incidence connected with temporary disability.Materials and methods. Data on five-year incidence (2013-2017) of WLC and costs of JSC "Russian Railways" of their medical maintenance are used. Calculations of the economic losses connected with temporary disability of WLC are executed.Results. The health service of JSC “Russian Railways” works effectively. About 5.9 billion rubles/year are spent for its contents. Due to decrease in the average duration of one case connected with temporary disability, the health service allows to save JSC “Russian Railways” to 5.3 billion rubles annually. Calculation shows that at reduction of a difference in the average duration of one case of temporary disability in JSC “Russian Railways” and one case of temporary disability for men of working-age of the all-Russian level up to 1.7±0.2 days, the health service can become inefficient from economic positions.Conclusions. From the economic point of view, the health service of JSC “Russian Railways” is justified at an essential difference in duration of one case of temporary disability for WLC and temporary disability of the all-Russian level for similar gender and age group.
41-49 450
Abstract
Objective. The variability of the design of the arterial circle of the human brain (ACHB) has been studied.Materials and methods. The systematization was carried out and the original classification of the variants of ACHB was compiled. The study was performed on 116 brain preparations of adult people (64 men and 52 women). The causes of death of these people were not associated with diseases or trauma of the brain. Dissection of the vessels ACHB and central arteries was carried out after the injection of contrasting arteries mixture (mascara - gelatin).Results. There are two types of ACHB design, including two subtypes (4 in total). First of all, the variants of the individual-typological variability (VITV) of the circle design were combined depending on the presence or absence of the sign of its closure in the types of construction of the ACHB - closed or open. The type of construction is one of the integral and basic principles of classification. It serves as a criterion for the morphofunctional consistency of the ACHB. The second level of systematization of the VITV structure of ACHB is associated with the allocation in types of two subtypes in each of them. This is based on the presence or absence of symmetry of the ACHB form. This sublevel is a systemic - all variants of AKBM are caused by the presence or absence, or the degree of development (from hypoplasia to hyperplasia) of the arteries forming it. In accordance with the selected types and subtypes of the ACHB, the identified VITV circle was classified.Conclusions. The statistically significant prevalence of closed and asymmetric ACHB among both men and women has been established. The proposed integral classification is based on the basic morphogeometric characteristics of the ACHB. It takes into account the anatomy of both individual arteries and the circle as a whole, without dividing it into the front and back sections and treating the arterial circle as a single entity.
50-54 324
Abstract
The aim of this work is to identify the individual characteristics of the structure of the maxillary sinus, taken into account during reconstructive surgical interventions in the upper jaw (sinus lifting).Materials and methods. Analysis of scientific literature, generalization of domestic and foreign studies. The study includes one operation. Patient N., 54 years old, had an open sinus lifting operation in the clinic of M. V. K. Medical Clinic due to post-extraction atrophy of the alveolar atrostum of the upper jaw.Results. The most important characteristics of the structure of the maxillary sinus are the thickness, width and discontinuity of the lower wall, the presence of septa in the sinus, the thickness of the Schneider membrane, and vascular anatomy.
55-59 697
Abstract
The most important problem determining the indications for surgical treatment of peritoneal adhesion is associated with the uncertainty of the criteria for early diagnosis of intestinal obstruction. Of all the most common acute surgical diseases of the abdominal cavity, acute intestinal obstruction gives the highest lethality. The main reason for this is untimely diagnosis. In two groups of patients, we performed a study of chronic peritoneal peritoneal disease using X-ray computed tomography (RCT), with obstruction (58 patients) and absence of this pathology (56 patients). Analyzing nonparametric statistics with the calculation of the Pearson criterion, with the Yates correction. We presented the criteria for the RCT study, differential diagnosis of adhesive intestinal obstruction from exacerbation of peritoneal adhesion. The main indicators of this disease: the fluid content in the lumen of the small intestine is more than 200.0 ml, in two or more regions, the inflated intestinal loops, an extension of 2.1 mm and more of the intestinal wall. The validity of the diagnostic criteria for RCT research leaves no doubt about the need for their use in preoperative access prognosis and the scope of surgical intervention.
60-69 300
Abstract
Objective: to study the microscopy, external signs of walnut partitions and the chemical composition of the alcohol extract from this type of raw material.Materials and methods. Microscopy was prepared by the pharmacopoeial method. The chemical composition of the alcohol extract was investigated by chromato-mass spectrometry.Results. In the course of the work, external signs of walnut partitions and the chemical composition of the alcohol extract were studied.Conclusions. The analysis of alcohol extraction from walnut partitions was carried out, the content of basic biologically active substances was revealed. The main anatomical and diagnostic signs of walnut partition walls were studied. The data obtained can be used to write a pharmacopoeial article on this type of raw material.

REVIEWS 

70-77 382
Abstract
The study of the relationship between somatotypological features of a person and the course of diseases is today an important stage in the development of medical science. The somatotype is genetically determined and is a constant objective characteristic of a person from birth to death. Age changes, illnesses, increased physical activity change the size and shape of the body, but not the somatotype. To date, considerable theoretical and clinical material has been accumulated, which confirms the important role of the somatotype in the emergence and development of pathological processes in the human body. In the literature there are data on somatotypological features of the course of diseases of the respiratory system, cardiovascular and nervous systems, and the gastrointestinal tract. At the same time, when analyzing the literature data, we did not find any work on the effect of the somatotype on the course of benign hyperplasia andprostate cancer. The identification of these patterns will be a valuable contribution to the early diagnosis of the above listed diseases.
78-84 479
Abstract
The article presents literature review about surgical treatment of liver hydatidosis. Particular attention is paid to the development of percutaneous treatment. Also modern trend of surgical treatment are described. We presented results of percutaneous treatment of liver hydatidosis in our clinic. We analized them and made the conclusion that percutaneous treatment is effective and safe method for liver hydatidosis. To reduce the risk of recurrence we have to do it right and all patients must take anti-relapse chemotherapy.


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ISSN 2218-7332 (Print)
ISSN 2658-3348 (Online)