Sechenov Medical Journal

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No 1 (2016)
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4-11 17

The article presents the paradigm of modern training in epidemiology: technologies and methods used by the Department of Epidemiology and Evidence-based Medicine. The contemporary training process requires various educational technologies, including interactive and computer technologies. The article dwells upon the fields of the Departments scientific activities including the Students’ scientific circle. The article demonstrates that the epidimiologists training should be focused on professional competences necessary both in Rospotrebnadzor and in the Ministry of Health.

19-23 9

Parametric statistics calculates the statistical significance of dirences assuming normality of the random variables in question. Since all random variables used in real biomedical research are not normally distributed, it is necessary to validate parametric statistical methods, i.e. evaluate the errors in the calculation of the statistical significance of differences. Unfortunately this test is performed incorrectly. The article describes the causes of errors in parametric statistics and presents a software program which calculates the error value resulting from the abnormal empirical distribution of the mean from a set of observations.

12-18 17

The present article discusses a history and technological aspects of antibiotic susceptibility testing methods and indentifies individual periods associated with the introduction of new technologies. The article demonstrates that the introduction of a diagnostic approach is associated with technological elaboration, standardization, the availability of appropriate equipment, qualified personnel, organizational structure and the international recognition, as well as medical and economic efficiency. “Noncultural” automated technologies seem to be promising for practical implementation. Meanwhile, the progressin this field requires serious consideration of a number of technological and organizational issues, e.g. standardization and the proof of specificity.

24-30 13

Nosocomial pneumonia on average occurs in 8–20% of patients in the Intensive care unit (ICU) and in 27% of patients under mechanical ventilation (ventilator). The pnemonia prevalence depends on the duration of respiratory support, and is an independent predictor of adverse outcome in critically ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation. The study objective is to develop measures to prevent nosocomial ventilator-associated pneumonias (VAP) in surgical intensive care units. We analyzed the measures to prevent ventilator-associated respiratory tract infections in the surgical intensive care department (ICU) for 10 years (2004–2013). The prevalence of ventilator-associated respiratory tract infections is the highest (87.65±11.76%) in the stucture of health care-associated infections. The improved surveillance system produced the reliable data on the incidence density (increase from 3.9±0.8 in 2004 and 11.7±1.4 in 2007, per 1 000 ALV/day). Pathogens VAP were characterized by multiple drug resistance. The greatest resistance was found to aminoglycosides in the isolated microorganisms (69.5±6.8%). The percentage of desinfectant resistant strains ranged from 1.1±0.6% (chlorine-based disinfectants) to 13.13±4.8% (to quarternary ammonium based disinfectants). VAP prevention in the surgical ICU should be comprehensive and include a hospital-wide preventive measures.

31-38 8

The article presents the аnalysis of the Russian primary drug abuse prevention system and proposals for its optimization. We found that the primary drug abuse prevention system in use iefficient and the programs are incomprehensive, unadapted, inconsistent and do not have universal coverage.The preventive component is included in the school's extracurricular activities but the classes are not held on a regular basis. The article presents the results of the survey of the senior students in the two Moscow universities. The surveyt rebealed low awareness of thq adverse health effect of drug abuse and high willingness to try drugs. The article proposes the ways to optomize primary drug abuse prevention system.


39-42 6

The article dwells upon massive open online courses in the professional self-education of health policy makers in the system of continuous training.

43-47 7

The article duscusses the quality assessment of healthcare professionals training in their accreditation. The article proposes a three-stage assessment model. The stages involve stage-specific evaluation tools that reflect the requirements of professional standards. The article dwells upon the tools and methods development in the Methodical Center of Healthcare Professionals Accreditations.

48-52 12

The study objective was to survey the medical students’ attitude to the objectivity and stressfulness of various forms of knowledge assessment, the level and causes of stress at the exams. 70.3% of the students consider the most objective an oral interview followed by a written exam, term paper (project or essay) presentation; structured test on fi ll-in forms and computer testing were found least objective. The students think that main causes of stress at the exams were large amount and complexity of the exam materials, insufficient coverage of the exam materials in the classroom and the changes in the exam timetable. The students consider exams in normal anatomy (38.7%) and pharmacology (35.3%) the most stressful. 70.5% of the students think that the return of the rating system will not increase the objectivity of knowledge assessment, 86.9% of studentsappreciated the exam in the cycle. The survey of the students' attitude to various forms of knowledge assessment gives information for instruction enhancement.


53-57 12

To determine the optimal type of radical surgery in the treatment of patients with perforated ulcers IQL used in patients 5–10 years after the operation. The best results are marked IQL after SPV 114.0±1,3 ballov which statistically significantly different from the average quality of life after the other radical surgical interventions: TV + PP – 98.67±3,5 ballov; Gastrectomy modification Roux – 101.83±4,2 ballov; Gastrectomy modification Balfour – 98.2 ±3,57 ballov; Gastrectomy modification Hofmeister – Finsterer – 82.5±2,71 ballov (p > 0.05). This is due to the fact that after SPV unlike other radical surgery saved gatekeeper. In the treatment of patients with duodenal ulcer better to give preference SPV. At impossibility of its performance it is advisable to perform gastrectomy in a modification or Roux Balfour, when executed by the bile does not flow in the stump of the stomach and has no effect on the mucous membrane, causing “alkaline” reflux esophagitis and gastritis. Such a differentiated approach to the treatment of patients with duodenal ulcer disease is the prevention of diseases of operated stomach.

58-64 13

The article analyses the professional activity of univesity professors and the occupational hazards, including emotional burnout. The study found that despite higher incidence, revealed in medical examinations, 25.8% of professors do not underwent annual medical examination and 56.7% of professors do not follow the medical recommendation. 78,6% of teachers called lack of a special health care facility for university faculty members and students. The incidence structure is dominated by respiratory deseases, including acute respiratory diseases, laryngitis and laryngotracheitis, followed by professional burnout. The analysis of risk factors revealed occupational hazards as the main cause of poor health status of university professors. The most significant are unsatisfactory wages and the necessity of a additional part-time position, need of existence of the second work, prolonged fixed position, high psychological pressure and working weelk longer than 36 hour. Taking into the consideration the creative nature of educational and research activities and prolonged working week we recommend to optimize research and out-of-class activities and limit the faculty obligatory presence by the instruction hours. We recommend to set up specialized health care centers for faculty and students for regular checkups and reabilitation.

68-73 13

The article dwells upon the technology of dry extract production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers. The most promising technology is maceration with stirring in 20% ethanol as an extractive solvent. the TLC method was used to identify the major active agents, polysaccharides content was determined spectrophotometrically. The obtained dry extract looks promising as an active substance for a drug formulation development.

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ISSN 2218-7332 (Print)
ISSN 2658-3348 (Online)