Sechenov Medical Journal

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No 2 (2018)
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5-13 273
Autoimmune intravascular hemolysis is an acute process of destruction of erythrocytes in the bloodstream, as a result of the action of antibodies and complement on the erythrocyte membrane. Toxins, as well as the products released by hemoparasites, can cause damage to the erythrocyte membrane, followed by activation of autoimmune reactions and manifestation of acute autoimmune intravascular hemolysis. The use of blood-substituting emulsion of perfluoroorganic compounds in anemia caused by acute autoimmune intravascular hemolysis is especially relevant in presence of contraindications to the use of donor erythrocytes. The use of artificial oxygen carriers makes it possible to provide organs and tissues with oxygen without inducing aggravation of the autoimmune process.
14-18 278
To improve and develop new methods for diagnosis and treatment of dentoalveolar anomalies, the study of questions relating to the morphology of the apical arches is relevant. Morphometric indices of the width of the apical arches of the lower jaw with brachicranial type of the skull structure were investigated. The work was performed on 144 preparations of the mandible of persons of mature age of both sexes with physiological occlusion of teeth. The width of the dental arch was measured between canines, premolars and molars. As a result of the study, the minimum and maximum confidence limits of the widths of dental arches at different levels of measurement were determined. The range of these boundaries was set. Reliability of the difference in the average statistical indices of the vestibular and lingual apical arches of the lower jaw in men and women was observed only at the level of the second premolars. At the remaining levels of measurement, the indicators were similar.
19-25 262
Infertility issues, regarded as an important component of modern medicine, which are, at the same time, a significant public problem, are becoming relevant for the elderly due to the increase in the average life expectancy. Alongside with that, in recent years, the negative impact of a complex of anthropogenic and environmental factors on the state of human health has been intensifying, which is especially important for the industrialized regions, including the Donbass. It has been proved that external influences, including the use of a complex of various medications, cause a typical response of the body, manifesting as systemic immunosuppression. The state of this issue prescribes the purpose of the study: the establishment in the experiment of morphogenesis of specific features of the epididymis in animals’ testes in the period of pronounced senile changes under conditions of prolonged systemic immunosuppression. The study was carried out on 60 white rats in the period of pronounced senile changes. The state of immunosuppression was modeled by the use of an alkylating cytostatic cyclophosphamide at a dosage of 1.5 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly for 10 days. The rats were taken out of the experiment by decapitation under ether anesthesia at 1, 7, 15, 30 and 60 days after the immunosuppressant was discontinued. In the epididymis of animals in the period of pronounced senile changes, a strong reaction is observed in response to prolonged systemic immunosuppression. Macromorphometric parameters of the organ undergo statistically significant changes in both early and late observation periods (7, 15 and 30 days), which indicates cumulative toxic and immunosuppressive effects of cyclophosphamide on the morphogenesis of epididymis. Changes in indicators at a microscopic level in the same period confirm the shifts in the organʼs body indicators, which confirms a disruption to its homeostasis caused by dysfunction of regulatory processes. The obtained results arouse interest in the study of the morphogenesis of the epididymis in conditions of acute immunosuppression in in relation to age.
26-32 259
An ecological and biological examination of adolescents of the following ethnic groups of Khabarovsk Krai was conducted: Nivkhs (n = 25), Evens (n = 54) and newly arrived Russians (n = 23), whose average age amounted to 14.57 ± 0.24, 14.6 ± 0.2 and 15.00 ± 0.32, respectively. Fe, Cu, Mo, Zn, Co, Se, Th, U content in samples of blood serum and hair was determined by atomic emission spectroscopy with inductively-coupled plasma. The elemental analysis of the diet was performed by means of questionnaires, and with the help of «Correct Food 6.5» software based on the reference book «Chemical composition of foods» (edited by Academician of the Academy of Medical Sciences A.A. Pokrovsky). Analysis of biosubstrates revealed elemental imbalance in all ethnic groups. The high concentrations of Th and U in the blood serum and hair of adolescents was an additional factor of inversion of elemental homeostasis.
33-37 319
The effect of doxorubicin and nanostructured doxorubicin on biochemical parameters and parameters in the blood serum of rats under conditions of the transplanted experimental Zajdela ascitic hepatoma was studied. The use of doxorubicin is accompanied by dysfunction and inhibition of blood sprouts, and also has nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic effects, which is confirmed by changes in the biochemical parameters of blood serum while the use of nanostructured doxorubicin is accompanied by normalization of these indicators.
38-42 229
The article analyzes the questions of treatment of inpatients with diabetic foot syndrome in a surgical hospital. A complex approach is offered and criteria of choosing methods of revascularization and rehabilitation are presented. The immediate and long-term results of the implemented scheme of patient management were studied, its advantages and disadvantages were revealed.
43-48 983
The article discusses some of the main features of the changes in the clinical analysis of blood in patients with bronchial asthma (BA) and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It should be noted that COPD is traditionally associated with erythrocytosis, but the systemic components of pathogenesis of this disease may adversely affect hemopoiesis and, as a result, contribute to the development of so-called anemia of chronic diseases. In the study, in addition to the expected natural increase in nonspecific markers of the inflammatory process in the parameters of clinical blood analysis (erythrocyte sedimentation rate and content of leukocytes in 1 ml of blood), in all age groups of patients significant differences in the prevalence and nature of anemia were revealed in different chronic obstructive diseases.
49-57 307
For the analysis of the effect of respiratory support on the parameters of external respiration, gas exchange, peripheral and central hemodynamics in endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty in patients with morbid obesity a randomized study of 58 patients with morbid obesity was conducted, in which endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty was performed under combined anesthesia. Depending on the choice of the mode of pulmonary ventilation (PV), the patients were divided into two groups. In the 1st group (n = 28) patients had respiratory support in the volume-controlled ventilation mode (VCV); in the 2nd group (n = 30) they had respiratory support in the pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) mode. The parameters of central hemodynamics, external respiration, peripheral hemodynamics, ABB were monitored intraoperatively. It was found that a significantly higher level of oxygenation was detected with PCV mode: PaO2 - 96.8 (92.7; 99.8) mm Hg, (PaO2/FiO2) 322.6 (341.2; 304.7) mm Hg in comparison with VCV mode: PaO2 - 92.2 (87.5; 96.3) mm Hg, PaO2/FiO2 - 307.3 (286.2; 331.7) mm Hg, and in second stage of the study (p < 0,05).
58-62 424
The article deals with the issues of determining the content of the dominant flavonoid in alcohol extracts from the leaves of Schisandra chinensis, which are not an official type of raw materials. The chromatodensitometric method (high-performance thin-layer chromatography) was used in the studies, which allows not only to detect adsorption zones on the sorbent layer, but also gives a quantitative assessment of the resulting separation directly on the chromatographic plate. Pre-selected chromatography conditions (solvent system ethyl acetate-methanol-water (77 : 15 : 8), chromatographic plate «Sorbfil PTSH-P-А-UV», a method of extraction of the studied raw materials, extractant) at 365 nm allowed to develop a method of quantitative determination of quercetin in the leaves of Schisandra chinensis, a species introduced in the Republic of Bashkortostan. The optimal ratio of raw material and extractant (1 : 5) and the volume of samples of quantitatively applied extraction (0.025 ml) were determined by the height and area of the obtained peaks of adsorption zones on densitograms. As a result, we observed a linear relationship between the peak area and the quantitative content of quercetin in raw materials. The content of quercetin in the leaves of Schisandra chinensis vine amounted to 0,188 ± 0,004 %. Metrological analysis of the results showed the reproducibility of the technique and the absence of systematic error. Consequently, chromatodensitometric method can be used not only for semi-quantitative, but also for quantitative evaluation of the content of various substances in medicinal plant raw materials.
63-66 282
Medicinal plants have various pharmacological effects on a living organism due to their rich chemical composition. Therefore, a comprehensive study of herbal preparations in vivo is of great current interest. The grass of garden peony has a valuable complex of biologically active substances and is a promising raw material for extraction preparations. This work is devoted to the study of anti-inflammatory activity of the dry extract of the garden peony based on the model of “carrageenan edema”.

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